The “Catch an Illegal Immigrant” Game at the University of Texas at Austin is not just about the students of that university. It implicates everyone who lives in the United States today. Though it can be easily dismissed as political theater or as a publicity stunt, performance and spectacle reveal that, for some, immigration has become trivialized to the level of a “game.” Yet that game plays out in this country every single day with very real winners and losers.
The stunt isn’t a one-time aberration but a window into a culture of cruelty that treats immigrants like animals to be chased, hunted, and captured. It underscores a privilege that makes it acceptable to make a game out of something that is the literal embodiment of the pain of many communities. It is about the preservation of a campus climate that makes it clear that some people do not belong, were never meant to belong, and do not have the luxury of ever getting too comfortable.
And yes, Young Conservatives of Texas, it is about the performance of a racial anxiety that the United States is changing and the children of the people who have been scrubbing your toilets and trimming your rose bushes also have a claim to this place that for so long you have somehow thought of as yours alone.
And perhaps the most mortifying part of it all is that there is a “prize.” What is particularly shameful about this event is that the Young Conservatives of Texas set up the rules of the game to include a monetary incentive. A cash prize. A fair trade – engage in an act of degradation and walk away with your wallet a little fatter! That pretty much sums it up.
They didn’t mean to offend anyone, they assure us. But guess what, Young Conservatives of Texas? Your “game” does offend me.
Who am I? Like you, I am the graduate of a top, flagship public research university – a three-time graduate of the University of California, Berkeley. Fifteen years ago, I cut my political teeth protesting “ethnic-themed” frat parties and defending my Chicana housemates who had racist slurs hurled at them from College Avenue windows while walking home from class. I am also a former lecturer at U.C. Berkeley. Each Spring I taught there, a racist incident at one of the U.C. campuses cropped up demanding our class time and collective attention – the noose at the U.C. San Diego library, Alexandra Wallace’s racist “Asians in the Library” rant, the notorious Affirmative Action Bake Sale.
And I have also spent the last decade learning from, working with, and researching undocumented college students. Students who have literally risked everything they have to get an education. Students who have slept in parks and the library because there was not enough money to pay rent and to buy school books. Students who work an all-night shift and then show up in class the next morning because it doesn’t make any sense to do the one if you are not going to do the other. These students deserve to attend a university without facing a mockery of their pain and sacrifice.
So yeah, Young Conservatives of Texas, I’m offended.
Those of us who are not at U.T. Austin can sit on the sidelines and shake our heads at the ignorance of students, hoping that they enroll in an Ethnic Studies course, or at least an American History course, and eventually learn how their ahistorical worldview is misguided, nativist, and racist. But we can do more: we can see their little racist performance for what it is – a reflection of the society in which we all live, a snapshot of our historical situation in which people are hunted like animals and traded in for small meaningless rewards. The “Catch an Illegal Immigrant Game” is an inevitable outgrowth of a social, economic, and political context that treats many immigrants as less-than-human, i.e., as “illegal.”
In that sense, the U.T. Austin DREAMers and their allies who put up a fight and shut the event down are also a reflection of the society in which we live: a reflection of the growing number of people who insist that dehumanization is not acceptable, that racism is no joke, and that the world we are fighting for does not have space for the mockery of suffering. They give me hope that we can all do better than this.
Genevieve Negrón-Gonzales is an Assistant Professor in the School of Education at the University of San Francisco.
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Sun, November 24 2013 » Latinos in the United States » 1 Comment
Indiana Tech Law Assistant Professor Steven Richardson: Ciudad Juarez and Consular Processing
Mexican born spouses of Unites States citizens who wish to obtain permanent residence in the U.S. and who entered the country without inspection by an immigration official are in an especially difficult position. Anyone who has not been lawfully inspected and admitted to the U.S. must undergo a process called consular processing. Consular processing requires that your interview with an immigration official be conducted at a consulate or consular section of an embassy in your home country. In Mexico, the only consulate that handles these interviews is in Ciudad Juarez.
Ciudad Juarez is a particularly dangerous area of Mexico right now because of drug and gang violence. The State of Chihuahua, and the city of Ciudad Juarez in particular have been noted as not advisable for travel according the U.S. Department of State. Given that the consulate in Ciudad Juarez typically has very long lines stretching out from it, means that many intending immigrants will have to wait a very long time in a very dangerous part of Mexico. While this should not dissuade you from beginning the immigration process, you should be aware of the dangers before filing an application.
Further danger comes from the fact that persons who have been in the United States for more than one year without lawful status after reaching the age of eighteen who leave the United States are prohibited by law from returning to the U.S. and must file an application for a waiver to reenter the country. This applies even if you are leaving the United States to go to a consular processing interview, and these waivers can take months to process. So many Mexican intending immigrants will have to wait for several months in Mexico before their waivers can be approved, and if they are not approved, the intending immigrant is not allowed back into the U.S. It is recommended that you not stay in Ciudad Juarez during this waiting period or carry large amounts of money on your person. Staying with family in safer areas of Mexico is advisable, so long as you can travel back to the consulate when necessary.
Before filing an application for immigration benefits, be aware of the risks, both physical and legal. If you believe that you might be eligible for immigration benefits, please consult an immigration attorney in your area. An immigration attorney will be able to advise you on the specific facts of your case and what benefits, if any may be available to you.
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Thu, November 14 2013 » Latinos in the United States » Comments Off
Conference on Latino/a Issues
Immigration reform may have stalled in Congress, but this and other important legal concerns fuel discussion at Nov. 8 event; free for USF students.
Associated Press Photos
By Barbara Melendez
TAMPA, Fla. (Nov. 5, 2013) – “Anyone with an interest in the current condition of Latino communities in the U. S. should consider attending our conference this Friday,” stated Associate Professor and Sociology Department Chair Elizabeth Aranda.
“Between the speakers, who are top researchers in their fields, and the topics we will cover, which touch on some of the most important issues facing Latinos today, we expect to come away better informed and more focused in our efforts to understand what needs to be addressed going forward.”
The conference title, “Latino Communities in Old and New Destinations: Multidisciplinary Approaches to Assessing the Impact of Legal Reforms,” encompasses a broad range of topics including, legal status as it affects Latina/o youth, inequalities in the criminal justice system, the well-being of vulnerable populations as well as intra-ethnic relations and social integration.
“And we’ll highlight the importance of these issues for the Latino communities in the mid-Atlantic, the South, the Midwest and the Southwest as well as those of Central Florida, and Tampa and St. Pete in particular, as these issues are also playing out in our own backyard,” Aranda, the conference organizer, said.
The one-day conference takes place Nov. 8, from 9 a.m. to 6 p.m. at the Vinoy Renaissance Resort and Golf Club in St. Petersburg. The registration fee of $50 includes lunch, snacks and refreshments during the day, but is waived for USF students who can attend for free by registering online, click here. Registration is on a first-come, first-served basis until the limited seating capacity is filled.
“The conference is timely given that the current state of immigration reform legislation is stalled. The conference highlights the important need of immigration reform before the end of the year and draws attention to the state of limbo and hardship that many immigrant families face due to the House’s inaction on moving forward on broad legislative reforms,” Aranda said.
“Our panelists, who come from a variety of disciplines and methodological approaches, will look at social policies at the federal, state and local levels and how they affect what has become a truly diverse Latino community – one made up of many types of communities,” said Aranda. “We’re talking about people from many different countries, people whose status ranges from long-time citizens of multiple generations to the newly-arrived, people with many different economic backgrounds and with varied experiences of race.
“Traditional gateway cities are seeing changes and new destinations are turning into thriving communities. What they have in common are certain struggles that cross all lines and that’s what we’ll be talking about. Our emphasis will be on legislation, court decisions and local ordinances,” Aranda said.
Cecilia MenjÍvar, Cowden Distinguished Professor, T. Denny School of Social and Family Dynamics at Arizona State University and Law Professor Ediberto Román from Florida International University College of Law are the featured guest speakers. MenjÍvar is the vice president elect of the American Sociological Association and Román is among the founding faculty of FIU’s School of Law.
Among USF researchers who will be presenting are sociologist Aranda along with fellow sociologist Elizabeth Vaquera along with Heide Castaneda and Angela Stuesse from the Department of Anthropology.
“Students from my undergraduate research class, in which we are conducting research on undocumented immigrant youth, will be volunteering at the conference and will get to meet some of the authors whose work they have been studying,” Aranda said.
“We will be looking at how Latino/a lives are hurt in some cases and helped in other cases, depending on the legislation we examine and whether it is at the federal, state or local level. This can show up as the denial of drivers’ licenses or racial and immigrant profiling practices, the under-representation of Latinos on juries and a lot of other areas we will delve into.”
Sponsors include USF Research and Innovation, USF College of Arts & Sciences, USF Department of Sociology, USF Institute for the Study of Latin America and the Caribbean (ISLAC), The Citizenship Initiative, USF Research One, the Suncoast Credit Union, USF World and Unidos Now.
For questions and assistance, contact Aranda at email@example.com.
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Fri, November 8 2013 » Latinos in the United States » Comments Off
A highlight of that event for me was the excellent key note address delivered by Stanley N. Katz
, currently Lecturer with rank of Professor in Public and International Affairs; Director, Princeton University Center for Arts and Cultural Policy Studies
– “Thinking Internationally: Internationalizing the Undergraduate Curriculum.” The address ought to be required reading for anyone interested in internationalizing American education, and a reminder that gestures
of internationalization, however tempting and useful for glossy brochures and administrative ambitions, is never a substitute for the hard work of internalizing the emerging cultures of education which, at their very best, are deeply international and perhaps global in scope, even as they remain local in function. Our very best intentions to avoid this inevitability can only do harm to the very best education we can deliver to our students, and to the sophistication and rigor of our own academic work.Professor Katz’s address follows:
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Thu, October 3 2013 » Faculty Developlemt, Latino Education, Law and Society, noteworthy » Comments Off
Arch Ritter over at his excellent blog, The Cuban Economy/La Economía Cubana, has posted Omar Everleny Pérez Villanueva paper, “The Current Deregulation of Cuban Enterprises””
The complete document is available here: Omar Everleny Pérez Villanueva, The Current Deregulation of Cuban Enterprises. Oct. 3 2013
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Wed, October 2 2013 » Cuba, Law and Society, The Economy » Comments Off
This year I presented a paper at the Association for the Study of the Cuban Economy Conference’s Panel on Legal Issues. Fional version now posted. The title of the paper is “The Problem of Labor and the Construction of Socialism in Cuba: On Contradictions in the Reform of Cuba’s Regulations for Private Labor Cooperatives.” It includes a very close analysis of the new cooperative regulations and thoughts about the difficulties of privileging labor within the constraints of current frameworks for engaging in economic activities. This post includes information about the panel along with the abstract introduction to my paper. More extended consideration of these issues may be found HERE.
The PowerPoint may be accessed HERE.
The Conference Paper may be accessed HERE.
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Fri, September 20 2013 » Cuba » Comments Off
PBS begins airing this week its new 6-hour documentary on the history of Latin@s in the United States. Its target audience appears to be non-Latin@s and it could be a helpful pedagogical tool in late secondary and early higher education courses.
A series preview is available at:
More info, including videos of selected chapters, at:
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Wed, September 18 2013 » birth certificates, Chicana/o Studies, Cuba, Culture, education, Elections and Voting, Hispanic Heritage Month, Identity, immigrants, Language, Latin America, latino culture, Latino Education, latino film, Latino Media, Latino Vote, Latinos in the United States, Law and Society, Mexico, PBS, Puerto Rico, race, Racial Hierarchy, The Economy, U.S. citizenship, undocumented students, Voting » Comments Off
From Frank Valdes
Next month, over two hundred scholars from all parts of the United States and beyond will convene in Chicago for the 2013 LatCrit conference. Meeting under the theme, “Resistance Rising: Theorizing and Building Cross-Sector Movements,” the conference will take place between October 4-6 at the Hilton Chicago O’Hare Airport Hotel, and will feature 50-some panels, workshops, works-in-progress colloquia, seminars and the like. In addition, Dean Maria Pablon of the Loyola-New Orleans Law School will deliver this year’s Jerome Culp Lecture, which honors founding LatCrit Board member and leading RaceCrit scholar, Jerome McCristal Culp, Jr. The conference will be preceded by a Faculty Development Workshop sponsored jointly by LatCrit and the Society of American Law Teachers (SALT), which provides practical support to faculty on teaching, scholarship, service and related issues. To review the program, and register for these events, please visit our website at http://www.latcrit.org/content/2013-latcrit-conference-registration-information/.
The LatCrit 2013 conference is sponsored by leading law schools in the Chicago area, including DePaul University College of Law, IIT Chicago-Kent College of Law, John Marshall Law School, Northern Illinois School of Law, Northwestern Law School, University of Chicago Law School, Society of American Law Teachers (SALT), Thomson Reuters. In addition, this conference and all LatCrit events also are sponsored by our ‘premier’ institutional sponsor, the University of Miami School of Law. Conference proceedings will be published subsequently in the John Marshall Law Review and the Seattle Journal of Social Justice.
The LatCrit conferences have been convening since 1995 as an open, big-tent venue for scholars in law and other disciplines to produce and exchange knowledge about law, power, subordination, equality, identity and social justice. During these years, LatCrit conferences and programs also have reached out beyond the United States to help cultivate outsider legal studies without borders. If you are interested in joining, or participating in, any of our activities or events, please visit our Portfolio of Projects at the LatCrit website http://www.latcrit.org/index/ .
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Wed, September 11 2013 » Latinos in the United States » Comments Off
On Monday August 5, 2013 law professors from six U.S. law schools convened an unprecedented “discussion group” at the annual conference of the Southeastern Association of Law Schools (SEALS). Discussants included Melinda S. Molina (Capital), Maritza Reyes (FAMU), Jorge Roig (Charleston), Ediberto Román (FIU), Frank Valdes (Miami), and Geiza Vargas-Vargas (Charleston), with moderation by Marc-Tizoc González (St. Thomas).
With expertise ranging from capital markets, citizenship theory, the colonial history of Puerto Rico, commercial real estate, constitutional law, corporate finance, DREAMers, economic justice, human trafficking, immigrant rights, intellectual property, Latina & Latino Critical Legal Theory, LGBTQI rights, municipal identification card programs, prison funding, racial and ethnic identities, small business startups, and youth poverty, the discussion featured participants’ research and insights before an audience of law professors from across the nation, including inter alia June Carbone (Minnesota), César Cuahtémoc García Hernández (Denver), Caprice Roberts (Savannah), and Lisa Smith-Butler (Charleston).
While details on the discussion group content will be reserved for a future blog post, Understanding Hispanics & Latinas in the New South, constituted a great experience for the participants and had the support of numerous law faculty who were unable to attend, including William Araiza (Brooklyn, and the SEALS Hispanic Outreach Coordinator), Richard Delgado (Alabama), Jasmine Gonzales Rose (Pittsburg), Dean María Pabón López (Loyola New Orleans), M. Isabel Medina (Loyola New Orleans), Ana Maria Merico (Arizona), Mariela Olivares (Howard), Lupe Salinas (Thurgood Marshall), and Anthony E. Varona (American).
In this post I will focus on three reasons why I believe the discussion group was excellent. First, the proposal was compelling. Second, the group cultivated collegiality. Third, the format was extended and flexible.
“Understanding the sociolegal conditions of the internally diverse ethnic group termed Hispanic or Latino by the U.S. Census is critical to comprehending current and future social changes in the United States.
“From 1990 to 2010, the population of Hispanics / Latinos more than doubled — from 22.4 to 50.5 million, i.e., nine to sixteen percent of the total populace — not including the 3.7 million Hispanics living in Puerto Rico. Nationally, Hispanic children account for 22% of all children younger than 18, and the Hispanic median age is 27.4 years (in contrast to 36.8 years for the overall population).
“Regionally, 36% percent of all Latinas and Latinos live in the South, where they account for 16% of the region’s population and grew in the last decade at a rate more than four times that of the region’s total population. In that decade, the Hispanic population more than doubled in eight Southern states (Alabama, Arkansas, Kentucky, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee), and five Southern states now feature Hispanic populations larger than half a million (Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, Texas and Virginia).
“This proposed SEALS 2013 Discussion Group will gather an array of sociolegal scholars who care to elucidate and interpret the sociolegal conditions of various Southern Hispanic communities, inviting them to dialogue with judges, attorney generals, and other policy-makers of states where Latino growth has been largest. The discussion group will articulate their different views under a theme of “the New South,” in hopes of sparking a multi-year dialogue, with new research collaborations and publications, in order to inform SEALS 2013 conference attendees of today’s distinctive Latina/o sociolegal conditions, framed in the South’s distinctive historical context and its contemporary sociolegal relations, with an eye toward its future.” Marc-Tizoc González, Understanding Hispanics and Latinas in the New South – Discussion Group Proposal, Oct. 27, 2012 (on file with author) (citing primarily Sharon R. Ennis et al., The Hispanic Population: 2010, U.S. Census Bureau, C2010BR-04 (May 2011)).
In other words, the evolving sociolegal situation of the diverse social groups categorized by the U.S. Census Bureau as Hispanic or Latino provided the group with a rich subject to discuss. Indeed, over the past twenty or so years discussants like Professor Román and Professor Valdes have charted influential pathways to elucidate the colonial history of Puerto Ricans and nativist backlash against undocumented immigrants, or LatCrit theory and Queer legal theory.
Informed by my decade-plus engagement with LatCrit theory, praxis, and community, as the discussion group moderator I invited the discussants to an array of informal meetings beyond the actual panel. While contingent on travel plans and family obligations, nonetheless a critical mass of the discussants met the afternoon before the panel and shared dinner that evening. The next day, we breakfasted together, and continuing the previous day’s conversations soon turned into lunch, after which it was almost time to start the formal discussion group.
While demands and schedules may make sustained engagement difficult for many people, cultivating collegiality at a conference greatly facilitated the group’s cohesion and effectively replaced the standard academic panel with a vibrant, rigorous, and enjoyable discussion, a goal that was further served by the discussion group format that SEALS has recently innovated.
Extended and Flexible Format
As I understand its history, in 2011 SEALS sought to innovate a new “discussion group” format, which debuted at its 2012 meeting and sought to complement the regular panel format by providing an extended period to promote deeper discussions around a particular subject. For example, in addition to our discussion group, which received three hours in the meeting schedule, in 2013 SEALS featured discussion groups on inter alia Dealing with the Financial Crisis and New Voices in Labor and Employment Law.
Around twice the time usually allotted for a typical academic panel, the discussion group format thus invites extended scrutiny of a particular subject. However, our group agreed with Professor Vargas-Vargas, who urged against simply using the longer time period to double the standard time allotted to each speaker, e.g., thirty minutes per speaker, followed by thirty minutes for Q&A. Rather, she urged, and the group agreed, that we aspire to match the format’s name, and truly discuss, as a group, our considered thoughts on “understanding Hispanics and Latinas in the New South.”
Toward that end, rather than prepare merely to moderate individual presentations, I accepted the group’s charge to develop a small set of questions around which to structure our discourse:
1. What is the single most important fact that we should know to frame today’s discussion?
2. What particular point about Hispanic / Latina communities and identities would you like to highlight for the group’s attention? (What distinctive details should our audience understand about the racial formation, i.e., the differential racialization, of Hispanics / Latinos in the South? In particular, how has the law structured social differences amongst Hispanics of different national origin, and beyond national origin, are their any particular communities we should know more about?)
3. What significance, if any, do you ascribe to the phrase “the New South”?
4. What substantive areas of law, e.g., citizenship, immigration, employment, labor, criminal justice, implicate and illuminate the contradictions of Hispanic / Latino communities and identities, e.g., criminalization and elision?
5. Given our discussion today, what is the most important point that you will take away to incorporate into your research and scholarship?
Additionally, I prepared a set of questions particular to the discussants’ research areas and the presentation abstracts that each of the discussants sent to me. As noted above, detailed reportage on the discussion will be forthcoming in a future post, but my point here is that the discussion group format resonated well with the aims of our proposal and the LatCrit praxis of cultivating collegiality by building community.
In other words, in August of 2013, Latina/o law professors based at U.S. law schools convened a serious discussion about the sociolegal situations of the diverse communities that the Census terms Hispanic or Latino, with particular focus on those located geographically in the South in the historical period following “the New South,” i.e., the post-Reconstruction period, which many critical scholars label by reference to “neoliberalism” and which popular discourse has often discussed in terms of “globalization.”
While this particular conversation is nascent, it was long overdue, and I am pleased that we built trust with each other by successfully inaugurating the first such discussion at SEALS in its history. I feel particularly gratified that the discussants found the experience enjoyable and engaging enough to commit to organizing a follow up event at SEALS in 2014.
Be on the look out for future posts about the discussion group’s content, as well as announcements regarding other projects of scholarship, teaching, and activism that may well trace their origins to this important intellectual convening!
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Fri, September 6 2013 » LATCRIT, Latinos in the United States, SEALS » Comments Off
This post is authored by Indiana Tech Assistant Professor/Law Libarian Steven Richardson.
Latino immigrants, coming from a civil law system of government, are particularly vulnerable to exploitation at the hands of the unscrupulous. Due to differences in legal systems, common law notaries and civil law notaries are significantly different, and some Latinos look to notaries to provide legal advice as they would in their home countries. Since many notaries in the U.S. are not attorneys and have little to no legal training, this is a grave, though completely understandable, error.
The issue is not the confusion that occurs in these situations, rather it is the fact that some people know that Latinos will look to notaries for legal advice and take advantage of the fact. People who are notaries public, and thus quite rightly market themselves as notarios, will charge people for legal advice that they are not qualified to give, even offering to help them file for immigration benefits.
So long as no advice is given concerning which forms to choose, how to complete them, nor what evidence to include, there is no issue with unauthorized practice of law. However, many notarios will give such advice and there have even been cases where immigrants were put into removal proceedings because they were advised to apply for benefits that they were not eligible for. More often though, the immigrant simply receives no benefit, and has paid substantial money for the bad advice that they received. This does not arise as much in the criminal law context, because actual attorneys are provided by the courts.
Because the victims have no legal status, they often avoid calling the police or alerting the local bar association. This makes it very difficult to ascertain how widespread the problem is, but what is known that the problem does exist. This does not occur as often in francophone communities, who have similar backgrounds in terms of notarial authority, because the immigration status issue is not as common, meaning that there is less fear of official intervention.
On August 1, 2013 Rep. Bill Foster (D-Ill.) introduced a bill in the House of Representatives to combat this sort of fraud. If passed, the bill would allow federal law enforcement officials to prosecute it. The penalties include fines, jail time and repaying the victim’s fees. It also allows immigrants to withdraw their petitions and waives certain penalties incurred due to following the fraudulently provided advice. Currently, the bill does not have an equivalent in the Senate, and is not law.
If you believe that you may qualify for immigration benefits, please contact an immigration attorney. Only an attorney or government approved representative can advise you in legal matters.
___ ___ ___ ___ ___
Inmigrantes Latinos, quienes vienen de un sistema de derecho civil, son particularmente vulnerables a explotación a las manos de los inescrupulosos. Debido a diferencias en sistemas legales, notarios del derecho común y notarios de derecho civil son considerablemente diferentes, y algunos Latinos recurren a notarios para proporcionar consejo legal cono hacen en sus países nativos. Porque muchos notarios en los EE.UU. no son abogados y no tienen entrenamiento legal, eso en un error grave, aun entendible.
El asunto no es la confusión que ocurre en esas situaciones, sino es el hecho que algunos saben que los Latinos recurren a notarios para consejo legal y se lo aprovechan. Las personas quienes están notarios públicos, y verdaderamente se promocionan, como notarios, cobran la gente por consejo que no califican a dar y les ayudan a solicitar para beneficios inmigratorios.
En la medida que ningún consejo legal esta proporcionada que pertenece a cual formulario debe elegir, como llenarlas ni cual evidencia debe incluir, no hay problema con ejercicio desautorizado de derecho. Pero muchos notarios dan ese tipo de consejo y hay casos donde inmigrantes fueron puestos en procedimientos de deportación porque estaban aconsejados a solicitar beneficios pro los cuales no estaban elegibles. Usualmente, el inmigrante solamente no recibe ningún benéfico, y ha pagado una cantidad substancial por consejo malo que ha recibido. Ne hay ese problema mucho en el contexto de derecho criminal porque abogados son proporcionados por el corte.
Porque las víctimas no tienen estatus legal, usualmente evitan a marcar a la policía o notificar la asociación de abogados locales. Lo hace muy difícil determinar tan generalizado es el problema, pero es bien conocido que si existe el problema. Eso no ocurre tan frecuente en comunidades francófonos quien tienen antecedentes similares in al área de autoridad notarial, pero el asunto de estatus inmigratorio no es tan común, significando que hay menos miedo de intervención oficial.
El 1º de agosto de 2013 Representante Bill Foster (demócrata- Ill.) presentó un proyecto de ley en la Cámara de Representantes para combatir ese tipo de fraude. Si está aprobada, el proyecto daría poder a agentes del orden federales a procesarlo. Los castigos incluyen multas, encarcelamiento, y reembolso de los gastos del victimo. También permite los inmigrantes a retirar sus solicitaciones y condona ciertas sanciones causado por seguir el consejo proporcionado fraudulentamente. Ahora misma, el proyecto no tiene equivalente en el Senado, y no es la ley.
Si cree que puede calificar para beneficios inmigratorios, favor de contactar a un abogado de inmigración. Solo un abogado o un representante calificado por agencias del gobierno puede aconsejarle en asuntos legales.
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Fri, September 6 2013 » Latinos in the United States » Comments Off